|CONFLICTS AND BATTLES OF THE HUMANITY|
The Maurya dynasty
At the 4th millenium, the valley of Indus has a strong density of population due to the diversification of agriculture and the domestication of the animals. This population comes from the mountains of the south of Afghanistan and Balouchistan and found the Indus Civilization.
The Harappan civilization territory
These people have the sociable and not very aggressive reputation to be. He uses copper and bronzes for the manufacture of weapons (blades and axes) but does not know the use of iron, and does not use the horse in its army. It undergoes a slow decline, in particular for climatic reasons. Thus, Mohenjo-Daro is paralysed by the mud of Indus. The territory harappean is parcelled out.
In the middle of the 2nd millenium of the clans of nomads come from North East settle in the valley of Indus and avoid mixing with the dravidian population. They are good riders and use the tanks with two wheels. The arrival of these Aryan is progressive and they take little by little the control of the area and are spread in the valley.
Vedic period (-1500 -468 BC) )
There is no political unit and among these new come, it is a succession of wars between these micro states. They bring a language: the Sanskrit, the work of iron and to keep their social position, create the system of the castes towards - 1000. The Aryan ones are especially installed in Pendjab. Towards the end of the 2nd millenium, they infiltrate in the valley of Gange. Then after the domination of this new basin, they penetrate in Dekkan (southern of India). As of -800, they create great regional political entities, Janapadas, which make India of North.
A state becomes powerful at the 6th-5th century, in the east of the valley of Gange, Magadha, in the south of Bihar, whose capital Pataliputra (Patna current) is strengthened and whose king Bimbisara is contemporary of the Buddha. It is in competition with its neighbors for the control of Gange. It leaves victorious this conflict and controls the shopping streets. This state controls at the 4th century a zone which goes from Indus to Bengal.
The invasions start towards the end of the 6th century. Cyrus penetrates in India of Western North and conquers a part of Afghanistan. Towards - 512, Darius Ist launches a forwarding and makes the conquest of low Indus. All the Western North of current India is a whole of satrapies Achemenid empire of large king Darius 1st (6th century) to his distant successor Darius IIIrd Codoman, who is overcome by Alexander the Great.
Between - 500 and - 300, a political evolution, influenced by the persian domination, is in hand and sees the clan disappearing with the profit from the kingdom. The king is not any more a one simple chief of war but he incarne the authority on the territory.
Leading a larger army, made up of as many Macedonians than Asians , Alexander crosses the river Hydaspes river upstream, trenches dug by Porus and forces Porus to flee, killing 21 000 soldiers and capturing 9 000 prisoners out of 30 000 infantrymen. After its victory, it invades Pendjab and continues towards the east in direction of Ocean, the large river which for the Greeks surrounded the emerged grounds, arrived in Bias, its troops do not want to continue any more. Alexandre has to bend. Macedonians follow Indus to the mouth and they return in Perse by giving two satrapy two provinces attached to the macedonian empire.
Little time afterwards, towards - 321, an officer, Chandragoupta Maurya seizes the throne of Magadha with a reduced troop, then it conquers the basin of Gange. Thus its empire starts. When Alexandre leaves Gandhara, India of the West knows a political vacuum from which Maurya profits. Going towards the West, it makes the conquest of the valley of Indus and will obtain Gandhara and Arachosia after the defeat of the Greek sovereigns of Perse and Bactriane. It is the first unified state of the history of India. Known by the Greeks under the name of Sandrakottos, this emperor drives out the garrisons Macedonians of Indus and unifies the north of India. It gains the victory over the sovereign perse Seleucos 1st Nikator towards - 303, and obliges it to sign a treaty by which it gives up the satrapies of Kandahar, Kabul and Herat. Chandragoupta, in exchange, provides him 500 elephants which will be used in the battle of Ipsos. The army, strong several hundreds of thousands of men ensures the stability of the country.
Bindusara (- 297 - 272), son and successor of Chandragoupta, extend the conquests towards Deccan, until Karnata (Bangalore capital). With the end of its reign, the Maurya empire includes a third of the peninsula and connects Bangladesh and the Kouch Hindu.
Youngest son of Bindusara, Açoka must fight its elder to be installed on the throne. It results a 4 years interregnum from it. In - 269, Açoka inherits a vast empire connecting, in North, the Cashmere with (the current one) Karnataka in the South, and in the South East, from the delta of Gange, to the Afghanistan in Western North, it controls the area of Kabul and Kandahar The Maurya dynasty knows its apogee under its reign, in IIIrd century (- 269 - 232.) Once arrived on the throne, it begins an aggressive campaign to conquer the remainder of the sub-continent. . After 8 years of reign, the conquest of Kalinga (current state of Orissa in the Bay of Bengal) seems to have shaken Açoka by its bloody and cruel aspect. Having concluded successfully from the decisive military campaigns, it is based on nonviolence and persuasion to consolidate its vast empire. It ensures the safety of the sea routes on the East coast. Only the kingdoms tamouls in the south remain independent.
At the second century, the empire starts to disaggregate. It is an invitation for the invaders of the Central Asia. The principal ones are the Greeks of Bactriane, Sakas (or Scyths) and Koushans.
After the death of the Maurya last, Bihadratha,
towards - 185, by the chief of its army, Poushyamitra, this last founds
the dynasty of Sounga in the state of Magadha, until in - 73, reversed
in its turn by Kanva (from -73 to -25).
Euthydemus of Magnesia (225-190 BC), one of the first sovereigns Greek of Bactriane, began again in Maurya, old the satrapies achemenid located at the south of the Hindu-Kouch. His son Demetrios, subjects the area of Kabul and of Gandhara then conquers Pendjab and Sindh. Towards - 168, Menandre, an officer of Demetrios, arrives until Pataliputra and reign on Pendjab of - 166 with - 145. It resists the attack of Mithridate, king of the Pont, in the West. Towards - 130, Scyths (Saces or Saka) and Yue-Tche (Yuezhi), nomads of China of the North-West, driven out by Xion-gnu and Han, hustle these kingdoms indo-Greeks and settle in Bactriane and Sogdiane. Towards - 80 - 70, they settle close to Kabul. At the first century of our era, they control the area of Mathoura, in the south of Indus and fight frequently Satavahana. With the end of the first century, they found with Tokhariens the Koushan empire.
Arrived at power at the end of the 1st century, Kanishka increases the Koushan empire which occupying the north of India, extends towards the south along the valley from Gange. This empire reaches Benares. The successor of Kanishka, Huvishka continues his action, but the decline starts as of the following Vasu Deva. Around 200, Jouan-Jouan, Mongolian tribes, occupy the territories in the north of Hindu-Kush. At the third century, it collapses under the blows of Sassanides come from Perse.
During this time in the south, in Deccan
Andhra empire or Satavahana, develops until the end of IIth century on
the Godavari and Krishna's basins, and, in the extreme South, the three
kingdoms of Pandya, Chola and Kerala know a remarkable prosperity.
It is a power able to control the center of the peninsula from one bank to another and it approaches the indo-gangetic plain.
The Tamouls kingdoms occupy Ceylon.
A large kingdom is formed in north, at the beginning of the 7th century, starting from the principality of Thanesar. Harshavardhana (Harsa) runs up against Sasanka which controls a great part of the Gange's valley . It conquers Kannyâkoubja (Kannauj) of which it makes its capital and seizes the grounds located at the east (Magadha, Vanga and Orissa), but its countryside against powerful Chalukya and its king Pulakesin II, in Deccan north, is unproductive. In the same way, it cannot overcome Gurjara in the west. Its army counts many horses and elephants During this time Herat (651) and Kabul (664) fall to the hands from the Arab conquerors.
At the death of Harsa, the kingdom splits up in
In Deccan, by contrast, two important kingdoms are characterized Chalukya de Badami (Karnakata's state) and Pallava (second half of the VIth century)
|Return in top of page|
|Return to the banner page|