As of the IVth millenium, Sumerians invented the
and are organized in city-states, directed by kings. Between those,
that of Ur, and that of Lagash, the war is permanent. The competition
Lagash and Ur is not isolated. Other cities, also, behave from time to
time like enemies and the total situation resembles a system of moving
coalitions and alliances of short duration between these cities. Kish,
Umma and Mari, distant on the Euphrate means have been known for one
as old as that of Eannatoum. The majority of the engagements are
of infantry, although the chariots of war drawn by onagers (wild asses)
are quoted. These competitions are reinforced by the clash between
in the south and Semites in north.
To the 27th century, the most former known
kings are Mebaragesi de Kish and Mes-kalam-doug city of Ur.
the first dynasty of Ur towards -2575. This city melts seems most
in these first historical times.
- Towards -2500, Eannatoum one of the "patesi", (vicar of the
of Lagash, subjects the city of Oumma, then shift the dynasty of Ur.
successors leave the power to the clergy who oppresses the people.
The city of Kish imposes its hegemony to him. To the 24th century
JC, Ouroukaniga, a simple civil servant, reverses the clerical mode of
Lagash and rejects the yoke of Kish. Weakened, Lagash is destroyed by
the king of Uruk, who subjects Kish, and melts the
sumerian empire .
The brittleness of their geographic situation, as well in the plan of
the defense as of the resources, obliges them to innovate. The river
do not conceal copper, but they find some in the mountains of the east
and north, as well as Oman. As of - 4000, Sumerians obtain copper
from the iron ore and, towards -3500, they manufacture objects in
Sargon the Old one
- To the 24th century, coming from the
of Babylonia, Sargon the Old one reverses the Sumerian empire, subjects
all the cities of low Mesopotamy and melts the dynasty of Akkad. The
weapons of Akkadiens dominate the heavy equipment of Sumerians. It
its empire towards north, dominates Mari and the capital of Elamites,
Its armies enter to Syria and Cappadoce. During its reign, towards
to -2314, Sargon the first true empire of the history founds, by
its control to the Fertile Crescent, of Elam, in the east of Sumer, the
Mesopotamy to the 3th thousand-year-old
The successors of Sargon, threatened by interior revolts, face
of the mountain dwellers of Zagros, Goutis and Loulloubis. Towards
under the reign of Naram-sin, the invasions of Goutis follow one
and under its Sharkali-Sharri successor, the prone people (Sumerians
Elamites) rebel, the Agade capital breaks down and Goutis and Amorrites
destroy the Akkadien empire. It takes one century so that they are
out of Mesopotamy by Outouhegal, Uruk's king. 22nd century BC knows a
decline. Sumer is less affected by Goutis than North. Ur and Lagash
again there prosperous in a relative independence. Goudea de Lagash
a powerful sovereign.
Goudea de Lagash
- Towards -2110, Our-nammou melts a new Ur's empire which joins
Sumer, Babylonia, Elam and the valley of the rivers until Mari and
Mesopotamy is unified. But one century later, Ur is destroyed by
combined to the Syrians.
The 1st assyrian empire , founded by Sargon 1st in the 19th
fight against its neighbors, Hittites and
Mitanni and progresses towards the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean.
At the 19th century, Amorrites penetrate in
and Soumou-Aboum melts the 1st dynasty of Babylon. Hammourabi, one of
successors, destroys the first Assyrien kingdom, conquers Sumer, Akkad
and Larsa towards -1763, destroyed the kingdom of Husband towards -1760
and extends the babylonian empire towards the north of Syria. As of its
successor, Samsou-Ilouna, the residents of the Persian Gulf (Countries
of the Sea) are made independents. Samsouditana, towards -1620, imposes
the authority of Babylon again to them.
- Towards -1595, a raid of Hittites' king, Mursili 1st,
and destroys the dynasty amorrite. Many warriors died, the women and
children carried in slavery. The country is in a state such as a
kassite (originating in the mountains of central Zagros) settles in
and reigns there during 4 centuries. They introduce the horse there.
competition is sharp with Assyriens which is released from the
babylonienne at the 14th century. Towards -1220, the king Kachtiliach
is made prisoner of Assyriens which controls Babylon. Weakened by these
attacks, the Kassite dynasty is reversed by Elamites which take Babylon