|CONFLICTS AND BATLLES OF THE HUMANITY|
At the second millenium, coming from Ur in Mesopotamy, driven by the Patriarchs like Abraham, the Hebrews migrate towards the Mediterranean coast, go to the Egyptian Delta and return to settle in the country of Canaan. They are at the research of the best pastures for their herds. They find here Amorites and Phoenicians. They contact the Egyptians of the Medium Empire. At the time of the holding of Low egypt by Hyksos, at XVIIIth century, a part of the Hebrews, by small groups, pushed by the famine, come in the Delta and are well received. In the letters of Amarna, during XIVth century, the engagements that the petty kings between them, deliver themselves, under Egyptian protectorate are described In these fights, one often calls upon Apiru (in egyptian) ou Habiru (in ougaritic). The Habiru/Hebreu proximity is tempting but is not proven.
After having reconquered Low Egypt and driven
out the invaders Hyksos, the Egyptians of the New Empire regard the
Hebrews as allies of Hyksos and maltreat them. Reduced in slavery, the
Hebrews are mobilized for the construction of monuments with Pi_Ramses
and Pitom. They flee of Egypt in the middle of XIIIrd century and
driven by Moses, remain a long time between the Sinai and Neguev.
According to the Bible, Joshua makes them cross the Jordan.
Josue begins since the South, the slow conquest of a territory including powerful cities controlling the metallurgy of iron by victories in Aï, Bethel, Sichem and Gabaon, today Al-Djib. The fight is carried out by the tribes in a dispersed way. At the same time, in North, other tribes which do not come from Egypt and which know the country well, since their arrival dates from the medium of XIVème century, seem stimulated by the victories of Josue and dare to attack the army of Yabin, king cananeen of Hazor or Hatsor. All at once, in the North, other tribes which do not come from Egypt and wich know the country well, since their arrival dates middle of the XIVth century, seem stimulated by Joshua's wins and dare to attack the army of Yabin, canaanite king of Hazor or Hatsor. At the end of the XIIIth century, the catch of this fortress, previously reinforced of a deep trench by Hyksos, gives control from the north of Canaan to the Hebrews.
The only egyptian trace relating to Hebrews, is
the stele of Merneptah,
dating from the year 5 of his reign, towards the end of XIIIth
century. It simply mentions Israel, among the conquered peoples. It is
Bene-Israel and Bene-Joseph, (Hebrew clans taken out from
Egypt), which alloyed with Gabaonites threaten Jerusalem directly. The
king of this city, Adonisedeq, united kings' alliance canaanites and
accepted the support of the Egyptians. This alliance is stopped in the
rise of Beth-Horon. This battle is
uncertain, as the battle of Kadesh and was demanded as a win in
both camps. But
Jerusalem is not taken. Hebrew clans go back up northward and occupy
Ephraim mountain. They meet Bene-Jacob, clan come from Syria and
conclude the alliance of
Sichem, alliance which founds the Confederation dominated by
Bene-Israel. Proclaimed unit is principally religious. In XIIIth
century, the arrival of the Sea People gathers the
tribes of Galileo directly threatened in the Confederation represented
by the prophetess clairvoyant Debora and the general Barak. This
alliance leads to
the important victory of torrent of Qishon.
According to the victory of Ramses III against the Sea People, the Philistines settle in the South of Canaan, in Pentapole: Gaza, Ascalon, Ashod, Gath and Ekron, on the Mediterranean coast. Wars are permanent between Hebrews and Philistines. The Confederation is rather flexible and it is in a variable way that clans or tribes make war. These momentary alliances are driven to battle by elected leaders, the Judges. This period last 2 centuries, and all hebrews clans are not permanently in the Confederation. So, clans benjaminites, subjected to the tribute by the king of Moab, rebel and push back Moabites beyond of The River Jordan. In the North, the tribe of Manasse, fights against Madianites, directed by Gideon d' Oprah which gains of victory of Ein-Harod, also rejecting the enemies beyond of The River Jordan. Intestine wars oppose hebrews clans between them. During the strict defeat of Eben-Ezer, forwards - 1050, the Ark of the Covenant which Hebrews take as national emblem, is taken by the Philistines who restore it later.
Persistent threat of Philistines encourage Hebrews to unite together by choosing kingship, " as all nations ". After several failures, the judge Samuel is authorized to indicate a king and forward - 1020, he chooses Saul, son of Kis in Benjamin's tribe which distinguished himself by an audacious attack against Nashash, the Ammonites' king. Attacked again by Ammonites, he mobilizes all men to stop invasion, people refuse of earth to beat, but the king makes a hundred oxen's hocks cut and threatens to make also with all animals. The next day, Saul crosses The River Jordan with his army, attack Ammonites'camp, kill their king Nashash and devastates their country. The king wins against Amalecites and Philistines. When Egypt lost his strenght and is divided, the 12 tribes of Israel gather and collide with Philistines, more formidable enemy than canaanite kingdoms.
Saul is the first person in charge who
constitutes a permanent army, directly placed under his authority,
commanded by Abner and strong of 3 000 foot soldiers. Saul leads a long
war to liberate Benjamin's tribe occupied by Philistins. But Saul wants
to become emancipated of the clergy and he is denied by the prophet
Samuel. Juda's tribe sets him a resistance. He loses Gelboe's battle
against Philistins and loses his 3 sons then, defeated he takes one's
life. Samuel chooses David, son of Jesse, from Juda's tribe, as king.
David, simple shepherd of Bethleem, overcame the
Philistins' champion, Goliath with his sling. He became a Saul'nearest.
The king is jealous of his popularity and wants to kill him. Davidgoes
underground and becomes a leader of a troop of outlaws. He is forced to
take refuge at philistin king of Gat, Akish. The latter establishes him
to Ziqlag, where David, with his troop liberates judeans clans of the
amalecite threat. When Saul dies, David is acknowledged as their king
by the judeans leaders, towards - 1000. During this time, Ishbaal the
son of Saul, is chosen as king by Abner, the leader of the army and by
Benjamin's tribe. There are 7 war years between both camps, then
Ishbaal is murdered. David, by diplomacy, gathers all tribes and
concludes an alliance with them to Hebron. Philistins tries to separate
both camps by attacking in the valley of Rephaim, near Jerusalem. David
beats off Philistins. He needs neural city as capital. Jerusalem, the
city of Jebuseans or Jebusiaens is isolated. But this city is
impregnable, so much bulwarks are high and the water supply guaranteed
by a permanent spring, in summer also.The inhabitants can draw the
water since a tunnel dug in the rock, more than 500 metres, without
going out of the city. By this tunnel, David' troops take Jerusalem
with guile. He makes it his political capital, between the realms of
the North and South and his religious capital by transferring here, the
Ark of the Covenant.
David's power comes from his successful military
experience of gang leader, these men whom he leads, among which
Philistins, become his private guarding and the nucleus of the
professional army. David takes advantage of the disappearance of the
Egyptian, Babylonian and Assyrian powers as well as the recent
disappearance of the Hittite empire. With this well trained army and an
informed diplomacy, David spreads his influence on the region. In the
South, he subdues Moabites, takes the initiative of a war to annex the
ammonite realm, capture the capital Rabbah and puts on the crown. For
that purpose, Joab has to beat off the troops of the allied Aramaic
realms that Hamoun, king of the Ammonites called up. The booty is
David confronts Hadad-ezer, king of Zobah and
leader of allies in
the battle of Helam. Shobak, the leader of the enemy army, dies in
battle, and 700 chariots are taken and destroyed mostly, Hebrews still
knowing usage of this weapon. In the North, the king of Hamat,
(Neo-Hittite state) enemy of
Hadad-ezer, recognizes himself the vassal and pays tribute king David.
Philistines are pushed back but David does not try to
annex their territory. A win against Aramaics is followed by a peace
treaty. David controls in
the South, Edomites' territory whom he has fought to keep opened Aqaba'
road opened. Relations with Phoenicians are good, and
especially with Hiram the king of Tyre. Unit of the 12 Israel's tribes
progress, but his plan of census
and the building of Temple of Jerusalem are rejected by prophets. His
successor will accomplish them.
King David must confront armed oppositions in
his own people. Absalon, his third son is proclaimed king in Hebron. He
David's choice for his succession : Soalomon, son of Bathsheba. David
must run away with his private guarding and the leaders of army. A
short civil war, is winned by Joab and Absalon is killed
in battle. Tensions between Israel, in the North and Juda in the South
are lively. Sheba or Cheba, from Benjamin's tribe, tries to gather
Hebrews of North and claims Israel's independance against David. Joab
pursues rebels in the North of Dan, and besieges to Abel-Beth-Maakah,
whose inhabitants deliver the fugitives to Joab. David still alive,
Solomon is crowned king. He dies towards - 970.
Kingdom at the time of king David
Solomon, (Chelomoh in Hebrew), inherits from a true empire in flourishing financial standing but an empire to be consolidated. Solomon unifies the kingdom's administration with the aid of egyptian scribes and he encourages caravaneer trade by making the commercial roads towards Africa, Asia, Arabia and Asia Minor safe. But he chooses diplomacy rather than war. By conjugal alliances, he reinforces kingdom's position, so he marries an egyptian princess, king of Tanis' daughter, Siamon, from the XXIth dynasty. An alliance is concluded between both enemy states of the Philistines. Solomon wants to update her army and the massive introduction of chariots is an example of that. The very good relations between Salomon and Hiram de Tyr, allow Israel to have a fleet piloted by Phoenicians, based in Ezion-Geber, in the gulf of Aqaba, on Red Sea and deploying until Indian Ocean. Solomon makes many buildings : Big Temple of Jerusalem, is built with help of citizen of Tyre, he strengthens Jerusalem and other cities. Solomon must balance importation from Tyre by abandon of lands : country of Kabul.
But at the end of his reign, marked by
authoritarianism, his people,
supported by Egyptians, reproach him for his ostentation, weight of
tax and chores, and for his tolerance towards idolatrous foreign
worship. Edom and Damascus rise up and free themselves from Israel's
domination. At his death, towards - 935, kingdom is quickly halved.
Indeed Roboam, oldest son of Solomon, is crowned king and quickly become unpopular by refusing tax's reductions requests. Jeroboam, a senior official exiled in Egypt, is recalled by the ten tribes of North. Sichem becomes Israel's capital. Tribes of Juda and Benjamin remain with Roboam, Jerusalem remains Juda kingdom's capital. Roboam wants restore his authority on North. War opposes the two states and weakens them. Foreign interventions show this decline. Seshonq, new libyan dynasty' pharaoh, want to make recognize his authority on divided Palestine and runs with his army. Roboam accepts Pharaoh's request and pay a very heavy tribute. Seshonq continues his offensive towards Jeroboam's kingdom. Egyptian army destroys fortresses which protect Jerusalem and many cities in Israel and Sichem. Roboam benefits from this situation to attack North's kingdom. This war lasts up to the beginning of IXth century. Towards - 900, Bar-Haddad aramaic king of Damas, attacks also and takes Jordan's high valley. Situation between two rival kingdoms is balanced up to Zemarayim battle gained by Abiya, son of Roboam against Jeroboam. Kingdom of Juda occupies southern slope of Hephraïm mountain. Then, his king Asa reforms army and gains a victory against Egyptians.. Kingdom d' Israel is weakened by great political instability. But he rise in the reign of Omri, general recognized king after a civil war, towards - 880. He builds new capital, Samarie, subjects Mesha, king of Moab, ally with king of Tyr and stops war with Juda, now weakened and paying tribute to Aramaics.
This pause becomes an alliance under Josaphat'
reign, 4th king of
Juda, and that of Achab, Israel' king. This alliance is sealed by Joram
and Athalie's marriage. The war opposes Hebrew
kingdoms linked to Aramaics versus Assyrians. Towards - 853, Achab,
with Aramaic kings, of which that of Damas, stops Salmanazar III's
offensive, with Qarqar's battle, for ten years. Achab provides the
greatest quota of chariots in the coalition, Byblos and Egypt also sent
troops. But Achab's successors must face a
revolt of Mesha king of Moab and Aramaics. The conflict lasts. At
first coalition of kingdoms of Israel, Juda and Edomites gains
victories then Mesha and Hazael the Aramaic's alliance, threatens the
towns of Gad and Ruben. A military putsch
allows general Jehu power and eliminates Juda and Israel kings. In -
841, Salmanazar III takes again his offensive but he fails in
front of Damas. Jehu and Tyr and Sidon's kings pay him the tribute.
But Babylonian crisis remove Assyrians. Aramaics take advantage of it
to attack Israel and to beat him. Situation is degraded under Joachaz,
Jehu's successor. Israel
becomes vassal of Damas and his armed forces are limited. During this
time, Juda has problems and Aramaics' pressure
persists up to new Assyrian's attack directed by
Adad-Nirari III. The king of Damas is overcome and Israel take
advantage of it to reconquer his territories beyond Jordan.
This success of Israel kingdom envenom his relations with Amazyahu, king of Juda. This, after his victory of Salt valley against Edom, and Sela catch, defies Joas, king of Israel and Judeans are beaten in Beth-Shemesh. Israel seizes Jerusalem, the treasure of Temple and dismantles walls. Juda is Israel's vassal. The son of Joas becomes king of Israel under the name of Jeroboam II (towards - 790, - 750). He renews alliance with Phoenicians in particular king de Tyr. Commercial forwardings begin again via the Red Sea. Prosperity causes an important difference between social elite and poor peasants. Prophets criticize his action. During this time, kingdom of Juda, under domination of Samarie, knows peace and demographic expansion. The long reign of Ouzyahu, (towards - 776, - 739), sees an economic and military recovery. Army is reorganized, armament is arranged in royal stores, Jerusalem's walls are raised with machines located at the turns for launching stones and arrows. At the end of his reign, kingdom is well provided in charoits. The war begins again against Philistines and Gath, Yabne and Ashdod's ramparts are cut down. With dead of Ouzyahu, one period disturbed period begins for the two kingdoms.
At this time, Tiglath-Phalasar III, king d' Assyria launches out in a policy of territorial conquest " overall ". Kingdom d' Israel is struck by great political instability. Kings don't last. Menahem is subjected toAssyria and he pays a very heavy tribute what makes him extremely unpopular. His son is assassinated towards - 737 by Peqah which seizes power, organizes a coalition against Assyria, ally with Damas and besieges Jerusalem to force king of Juda to enter the coalition. Juda's troops undergo a reverse against this coalition. Achaz, young king of Juda then calls upon Tiglath-Phalasar III which intervenes quickly, takes Damas and " provinces" of north of Israel kingdom. Peqah is assassinated and replaced by Osee with Assyrian agreement. Osee cease to pay tribute with Tiglath-Phalasar III's dead, hoping to recover his independence with egyptian help, then in full internal conflict. Salmanazar V, new king of Assyria besiege Samarie which is taken after two years, in - 722. Kingdom of Israel becomes assyrian province and Osee, his household and craftsmen able to work metal, in all 30.000 people, are deported and conversely, populations of Empire are moved towards Samarie, particularly those of Hamath whose revolt was crushed by Sargon II.
STATE OF JUDA
After more than two centuries of conflicts between two Hebrew kingdoms, cut by forty years of alliance under the dynasty of Omri ( -881 - 841), Juda is weakened in - 722, and his sovereigns Achaz and Ezechias choose obedience, during Sargon II's reign. But, towards - 705, Ezechias rebels and leads a coalition against Assyria, gathering: Gaza, Ashod, Tyr, Edom and Juda, and supported by Kushite Egypt (XXVth dynasty). Ezechias contacts Merodak-Baladan which in Babylon, allied with Elam, is opposed to Assyrians. He reinforces Jerusalem's defenses with turns, built a second wall and creates a great number of weapons. Sennacherib, new king of Assyria, want conquer Egypt, also, he leads a fast war, beats Merodak-Baladan in Qish - 704, seizes Sidon and replaces his king, other Phenicians cities and kings of Moab, Edom and Ashod are subjected. Assyrians enter in Philisty, deport king of Ascalon and beat an Egyptian army in the plain of Elteqeh. Only kingdom of Juda remains. Senacherib attacks with major part of his forces town of Lakish, he besieges and captures it.
Siege of Lakish
The remainder of Assyrian army takes Gat and
refuses to surrender and Sennacherib's army suffers a destroying
plague, and withdraws while Taharqa approaches with the head of
Egyptian army. The consequences of this Assyrian attack are heavy.
Jerusalem is safe but many cities are ruined and a part of kingdom is
lost, thus West part is under responsibility of Philistines
which obeyed Sennacherib. Ezechias dies towards - 700 and
Manasse submits to Assarhaddon
punishes in a cruel way Sidon revolted, then Assurbanipal, successor of
Sennacherib. Amon, son and successor of
assassinated by continuing this policy. Josias child, is proclaimed
king towards - 640. In the beginning, Juda is subjected, but
disappearance of Assurbanipal and succession's disorders allow
Josias to practise an autonomous policy. Thus, he removes any
demonstration of foreign worships, encourages Samaritans to come to
Jerusalem to pray. Josias controls part of Noth kingdom and
Philistie. Perhaps he uses of Kittim, the Greek mercenaries.
Fall of Assyrian empire allows this expansion.
But arrival of Pharaon Nechao II, to support Assyria's king,
Assur-uballit against the Babylonians in 609 is fought by
Josias which refuses a return of Egyptian protectorate as well as
Assyrian domination. Josias is overcome in
Megiddo and he dies
there. Joachaz, his son is deposited by Nechao II which names in
his place Joachim (Joyaqin). Kingdom of Juda which pay now
tribute with Nechao, is only a stake for conflict
foreign powers: Egypt and Babylon. This conflict is regulated in
Karkemish in - 605 by the victory of Nabuchodonosor over Egyptians.
Nabuchodonosor seizes Jerusalem and requires tender of
but this one revolts and allies with Egypt in - 600.
Nabuchodonosor returns in - 597, Jerusalem ist taken on March 16,
Joyaqin and 10.000 people (the court, priests, craftsmen working
metals) are off-set in Babylon. Nabuchodonosor strips Temple of his
treasures. Sedecias is named king. But in - 587, after Sedecias' revolt
and ten eight months of siege, Nabuchodonosor
sees king and soldiers fleeing towards Jordan. They are joined close to
Jericho. Sedecias is taken along the eyes gouged out to
Babylon. Palace, Temple and aristocratic district are burned, and a
later, city and his ramparts are destroyed. A few thousands of
judeans are off-set in Babylon. Part of survivors
flee in Egypt.
Some resist with Amorites and Moabites until - 582.
Edomites allied to Babylonians occupy south of kingdom of
Juda, until Hebron. Godolias, governor named by Babylon is
assassinated, province id directly under Babylonian
BABYLON AND RETURN
The situation in Babylon is extremely different from preceding exile (at the time of the Assyrians). Judeans are grouped in a community and maintain a great cohesion. Babylon's attitude towards them is moderate. Judeans can practise their religion and are represented by a leader of their community. However when, in - 539, Cyrus II Persian, conquers Babylonia, and he allows the return in Judaea and rebuilding of Temple, many Hebrews remain in Babylon. The return is difficult, Jerusalem is ruined, Samaritans refuse rebuilding of Temple. Zorobabel, grandson of king Joachim is governor of Jerusalem. Towards - 516, Temple is rebuilt, smaller. At the 5th century, Nehemie, Jewish senior official at the Large King' court, is authorized to return to Jerusalem to raise the walls. Judaea is a theocracy, directed by a Great Priest, under the persian governor of satrapy of Transeuphratene's administration. At that time, a community of Judeans, is installed in island of Elephantine in Egypt, including mercenaries. The Hebrews undergo successive occupations common to the area: after Persians, which leave them a great autonomy, Alexandre the Great conquers the area and takes them into consideration. Hebrews subject themselves without difficulty, in the opposite of Tyrians. At the death of conqueror, Seleucos 1st Nicator, first Seleucide, inherits Judaea. Then Ptolemy 1st Soter seizes it and leaves it a great political autonomy. In the IInd century, Seleucides, fights about against Egypt and attentive to the roman rise to power, decided to conquer Palestine. In - 198, victory of Panion by Antiochus III Megas, against Ptolemy V, allows him to annex Judaea. Supported militarily by some Hebrews, Antiochus III authorizes their people "to live in accordance with the laws of ancestors" and exempts them taxes.
Appreciated by Judeans, the Greek culture is
adopted by a part of them. Bible is translated into Greek, by 70
Antiochus III founds Greek cities in Palestine, but overcome by Rome in
Magnesie in - 191, he loses many territories, his fleet and must
pay a strong war indemnity. He makes peace with Egyptians, his enemies.
His successor, Seleucos IV increases taxes and his treasurer tries
to plunder Temple. A pro-Egyptian party is formed.
The tax pressure increases on the provinces and
Palestine. Antiochus IV Epiphane " the visible god" decide between -
169 and - 167, forced hellenisation of populations to unify the
provinces and to reinforce kingdom. The Great Priest is removed. Gold
and money of Temple are seized to finance war indemnity. Religious
calendar and feasts are prohibited, the circumcision which shocks
Greeks, too. This policy contrasts with kind attitude of Persians then
Lagides. Greek cultural influence is considerable and hellenized Jews
are favorable to Seleucid power, opposite, Hassidim " loving God" ,
refuse this policy. With this opposition a religious divergence between
Saduceens present in sacerdotal class and Pharisees who take all the
verses of the Law to the letter. During this time, Antiochus IV took
again the war against Egypt and loses
href="hellenistic_greece.htm#G">Macedonia' alliance overcome by Rome
with Pydna. To Jerusalem, ex Grand Priest makes imprison Melenaus his
rival and drives out garrison. Antiochus IV turns over to Palestine,
restores Melenaus and place a garrison. In - 167, Antiochus IV devotes
Temple of Jerusalem to Zeus, there prohibited the traditional worship
and provokes Hassidim while sacrificing the pigs in Temple.
Jerusalem is provided a military governor. Application of these
laws' application provokes a revolt in Modi' in (Modin). A priest,
Mattathias Hasmon and his five sons refuse order to sacrifice a pig, he
stabs the hellenized Jew which obeyed, as well as the representative of
the king present, reverses pagan altar then harangues crowd and exhorts
him to follow them in the hills of Gophna to fight against Antiochus. A
thousand of partisans follows him. It is the beginning of Maccabee
Rebellion. A true guerrilla begins, punctuated by engagements of low
- 166 Nahal El-Haramiah, ambush in which
perishes Appolonius, the governor of Syria. This action attracts many
- 166 Beth Horon, procession where Seron the
general of Coele-Syria's army, is beaten (approximately 800 died).
- 166 Emmaüs where Judas opposes
approximately 6.000 men little
equipped against troops at least seven times more large whom Antiochus
IV send to restore order and collect taxes. By a surprise, Judas knows
Georgias attaks in night him, he abandons his cam and attacks
Georgias'camp deserted.and destroy it. Judas repelles Georgias and
gains the victory, the spoils are important and the enemy losses too.
- 165 Beth Zur is a true battle after
these ambushes. Lysias appointed to
regent by Antiochus, lead army including 60.000 soldiers and 80
elephants against Judas Macchabee which oblige him with his
warriors to retire towards Antioche, leaving thousands of
deaths. After that, Judas precipitates towards Jerusalem to drive out
garrison left by Antiochus, those takes refuge in citadel. Temple
- 162 Beth Zachariah: Threat of Accra's catch,
Jerusalem's citadelle by Judas, decides Antiochus to come himself with
important army, ordered by Lysias who besieges Beth Zur. Judas leaves
Accra and settlesl in Beth Zachariah at the north of Beth Zur. Lysias
launches attack on a narrow slope and Judas' army inflicts 600 filled
on Seleucides. The battle remains undecided but imbalance is
obvious. Eleazar Macchabee sacrifices himself to allow Judas to
switch off, his troops not being equipped for pitched battle.
- 161 Capharsalama, where Nicanor's army go to
help Great Priest Alcimus appointed by the new sovereign Demetrius the
Ist Meeting with Judas' troops would end in a withdrawal of Judas
Jerusalem after inflict on Nicanor serious losses.
- 161 Adasa, where Judas establishesh ts camp
while Nicanor installs
himself in Beth Horon. Results are contradictory according to authors.
Judas would have gained the victory or his defeat would have
cost him such losses that battle d' Elasa's manpower s' explain
thus. Nicanor is dead.
- 161 Elasa (Eleasa) sees the death of Judas
who, with 800 faithful
men, puts in escape Bachide's right wing but is however beaten.
The war lasts 6 years and rebellious, led by
Mattathias' sons : John,
Simon, Eleazar, Jonathan and especially Judah Maccabee, nickname which
would mean " hammer" , blocks armies what Antiochus IV and his
successors send against
them. They jam elephants
by occupying hills and block all passages except that where
they " wait" enemy. Jerusalem ist taken again and purified.
They seek alliance with Roman republic, the rising power, and
also with Sparte, and, in - 161, agreement is signed. Religious
liberty is granted but independence is refused, (Temple's
fortifications are razed) fight is still going on, Antiochus IV dies in
war in the East. A peace of compromise with Lysias gives back Temple
to people. Antiochus V succeeds, he is 9 years old but his officers
the war. This war lasts 25 years disproportion so large
between armies. Demetrios 1st Soter continues fight against Maccabees.
But Seleucid Empire breaks up under shock of national revolts,
war against l' Egypt and Rome's influence. Simon Maccabee, the survivor
among the 5 sons, obtains from Demetrios IInd Nicator, the recognition
of independence in
- 141. It is advent of Hasmonean dynasty.
It is based on a contradiction: : the Great
Priest Simon is elected prince
of God's people as far his replacement by a prophet. This
political recognition is made with agreement of sovereign
Demetrius II But when Simon dies, his son, John
Hyrcanus succeeds to
him, towards - 135, at the same time Great Priest and ethnarch.
dynasty comes from Levy's tribe, distinct from Juda's tribe, that of
David. Jean Hircan puts in failure, by his victories, an attempt at
re-establishment of seleucid domination. His " kingdom"
annex Samaria, after a severe seat, temple of Garizim mount is
destroyed, as well as fortifications, Sichem is shaven. Idumea (old
Edom and Moabitide (Trans Jordan) are also conquered. New thing,
Idumeans are authorized to remain in their country but forced to
convert to Judaism. This causes tensions with Hebrews. State becomes
centralized. In - 104 his son Juda-Aristobule succeed to him, which
causes rejection by Pharisees who consider Hasmoneans' royalty as
usurpation with all those which do not go down from David. In - 103,
brother of Juda-Aristobule, Jonathan-Alexander Jannaeus, (Yehonatan),
takes title of king and continues expansionist policy of dynasty,
annexing Galileo, Golan, Mediterranean coastline with Jaffa and Alep
and Philistine plain. He is beaten by Nabateans in Golan towards - 93
but he reconquests Golan towards - 80. With her death, queen Alexandra,
her widow, succeeds to him. Conflict between his sons, Hircan II and
Aristobule II allows Romans to intervene, called like referee by the
Pharisees ask for monarchy's abolition and return to Great Priests' governement. In 63, general Pompey takes Jerusalem, removes monarchy and leaves Great Priest Hyrcan takes over the control and Antipater, Idumea' governor, to become Judaea's sovereign. Tibute is raised for Rome. In - 43, his son Herod controls in his turn Judaea on behalf of Romans. Then Parthes conquer Syria and Palestine in - 40 and take Jerusalem. Antigonos nephew of Hyrcan, supported by Parthes, becomes king and Great Priest. But Parthes are driven out by legions and Herode supported by Marc Antoine takes again Jerusalem after a five month old seat and becomes king de Judea in - 37. Herode rebuilds Temple and builds the fortress of Massada. Romans let the Jews get organized under the authority of Sanhedrin. It is almost a Jewish state; independent up to his death in - 4. The kingdom is then divided between his 3 sons. Archelaus inherits Judaea, Samarie and Idumea. But emperor Auguste, on the complaint of Judeans and Samaritans, exile him in Gaull, in 6, and Romans directly manage territory which becomes procutatorian province, these procurateurs residing at Cesarea. During this time, the "party" of Zealotes proposes the armed struggle against Romans. In 6 also, the special legate emperor in Syria, Publius Sulpicius Quirinius causes a revolt directed by Judas Galilean (or Gaulanite) with the Zealotes. He projects to raise tax. Varus, the Roman governor of Syria restores order with 2 legions and crucifies 2.000 insurgents. But small groups of partisans continue the harassing of Roman convoys. In 66, Roman procurator Florus uses in the Temple's treasures, Zealotes act during the great revolt in August 66. Repression causes thousands of victims. Massada is taken by surprised by a group of revolted, Sicaires. Zealots gain control of Jerusalem and massacre Roman garrison. Vespasien, governor of Africa is charged to repress this movement and to punish Jews, besieges Jerusalem in 67. Proclaimed an emperor by his troops in 69, and because of civil war which rages in Rome, he leaves Judaea and lets his son Titus end the siege of Jerusalem. After 3 and half years of fight, in autumn 70, Titus enters the city, makes destroy Temple of Herode and shave the city. In Massada, the "impregnable fortress" resist until 73. Defenders, choose to die when final attack is imminent. Repression is wild. According to Flavius Josephus, 600.000 people died during this war and several thousands are sold like slaves. A new revolt bursts from 115 till 117. In 132, Hadrian emperor has project to hellenize country what causes a last revolt, directed by Shimon Bar Kokhba. She manages to control Jerusalem and Judaea. But in 134, Jerusalem ist taken again by Romans, the Jews folding up in the mountain of Juda and deserts close. In 135, Bethar, the last fortress, falls. The revolt is crushed, Jerusalem prohibited to Jews and renames Aelia Capitolina. After this last revolt, Jews of Palestine are largely dispersed.