|CONFLICTS AND BATTLES OF THE HUMANITY|
EUROPE / THE MEDITERRANEAN/GREECE
The division of the Empire
The Antigonide dynasty
Wars against Rome
Philippe is skilful winner, after the triumph of Cheronee. He
the Athenian prisoners and asks that one give him the command of all
Greek military forces against the common enemy: Persia. Athenians,
acclaim him. Sparte is reduced to Laconie. Garrisons Macedonians hold
key points: Thebes, Chalcis, Corinth and Ambracie. A conference is
convened in Corinth, and all the cities except Sparte, send their
to him, and agree to link theirself in a panhellenic league respecting
autonomy. Philippe becomes the generalissime of "federal" army of 200
000 infantrymen and 15 000 riders. It is in - 337, that a second
congress decides the war against Persia and names supreme Philippe
But in - 336, before leaving in forwarding, Philippe is assassinated
during the weddings of his Cleopatre daughter. Alexander is 20 years
old and follow after him. He is confronted immediately with a beginning
of revolt of the Greek cities which he strangles while going quickly on
Thessaly, by an unexpected way, pacification is done without combat,
while passing without opposition Thermopyles. He is confirmed in
the alliance made with Philippe and his own nomination with the load of
supreme commander. Sparte does not adhere to it.
Alexander ensures the stability of the kingdom by eliminating the applicants and safety from his borders from North which know an unbearable agitation before leaving to the conquest Perse. In Thrace, the king of Triballes drove out the garrisons Macedonians, in spring - 335, the pacification campaign starts. 15 000 infantrymen and 1 500 riders run up against the mountain dwellers who block the road towards the country of Triballes. Carriages are laid out on the peaks loans to descend on the Macedonians. Alexander shows his talent of military chief by effectively using the archers and the slingers. He crosses even the Danube and it is there that he meets the envoys of the Celts.
The news of Alexander's died causes revolts in the Greek cities. He interfers abruptly and as Thebes refuses to surrender, the city is taken by storm with the assistance of soldiers from other Greek cities and it is a true carnage, then it is shaven except for Cadmee and Pindare' s house in - 335. Parmenion, the macedonian general that Philippe sent in Asia with 10 000 soldiers, reprocesses in front of the energetic offensive of Memnon of Rhodos to the head of the mercenaries of Large King Seules remain with the hands of the Macedonians the towns of Abydos and Rhoeteion. The situation stabilized in Greece, the preparations of the war against Perse precipitate. The reasons are numerous since the invasions of the medic wars, until the support brought to the Greek cities revolted while passing by "complicity" in the murder of Philippe.
In April - 334, leaving Greece under the monitoring of Antipater with honest troops, the Greek army springs and in 20 days, joined Sestos since Pella, finally it rejoins Abydos . It is made up of approximately 35 000 men, once joined together with the troops of Parmenion and includes in addition to the Macedonians, the quotas of the cities of the panhellenic league, the infantrymen of the allied people and the mercenaries. In three days, Alexander reaches the valley of Granique.
Just like in Marathon, the Persians regard this company as foolish, and think that the Greeks came with weak provisions and that they will become exhausted. Thus the Persian fleet, higher than its enemies, does not try anything to prevent the crossing and the army of the satraps awaits Alexander in Granique. This army is solid and contains strong quotas of Greek mercenaries, placed behind to prevent that the victory is not due the abroads. This provision makes the infantry Persian useless. It is on the heavy cavalry which the satraps count. On a favorable position, it is put in escape by a furious attack of cavalry where Alexander is extremely exposed. 300 armours taken to the enemy are sent in Athens.
This victory is welcome and Asia Mineure is offered to
objective is to take all the ports to cancel the threat of the Persian
fleet, before being inserted in the Persian empire. Indeed, Athens,
maritime power at Aegean sea did not give an opinion between Darius
and Alexander. This last attracts itself the sympathy of the Ionian
by restoring freedoms and removing the tribute poured with Large King
Smyrna and Ephese accomodate it as a liberator of the "Persan yoke".
Then it occupies the Decay, Phrygie and Cilice. Some cities resist like
Milet and especially Halicarnasse but nothing stops Alexander who,
returns in the interior of the grounds. It occupies Gordion, section
famous node which says one predicts the conquest of the world and
reinforcements from Europe. It crosses the Taurus mounts easily and
the town of Tarsus.
Darius decides to come to the head from an immense army, to stop Alexander. But the mountainous nature of the ground makes useless the numerical superiority of the Persians. With the battle of Issos, it is still a brilliant victory punctuated by the escape of Darius which gives up his mother, his wife, her children and his harem as well as immense spoils. A peace proposal is made by Darius which proposes to him to keep his conquests. But Alexander requires a complete tender and counters the opinion of Parmenion, refuses this offer.
Alexander chooses troops specialized for the mountain and
leaves in forwarding in Lycie, Pisidie and Pamphylie, of the autumn
- 334 in spring - 333. The purpose of this "winter campaign" is to
eliminate the risk from attacks against his lines of supply, on
behalf of the mountain tribes remained independent of the Persian
empire. In the same way the Persian fleet threatens Greece, whose
alliance is fragile. On the road of Egypt, the phenicians ports
accomodate it, only Tyr, the metropolis of Carthage, refuses to
open his doors to him. Hard a 7 month old seat comes from there
to end. Supposed unable to measure itself with its adversaries,
the Ionian fleet is laid off, its crews are converted into
infantry. The Persian fleet is free to take Chios and Lesbos and
to besiege Mythilene. Gaza is also taken by storm in two months.
The Persian fleet is not any more one threat and the Macedonian
has soon a hundred ships phenicians or Cypriot. In - 332, Alexander is accomodated as a liberator
in Egypt. He goes to the oasis of Amon, in the Libyan desert
where a priest recognizes a divine ascent to him, and titrates
it of Pharao. The control of Egypt is necessary because of the
support which it can bring to the revolt Greeks against Macedonia
but he does not present any difficulty, Alexander melts the town of
Alexandria in the Delta. At the return, he conquers Syria and
In - 331, Darius reconstituted an important army, including elephants and charriotery with forgery. Alexander meets it in the plain of Gaugameles and once more it avoids being wrapped and the vigorous load carried out by Alexander and his cavalry directly threatens Darius which flees and causes the collapse of the Persian army.
Alexander pursues Darius, enters in Babylon and takes the title of King of Asia. He occupies then Suze, where he seizes Darius' treasure (40 000 talents), then Persepolis and Pasargardes in - 330. The Greek troops of the League are demobilized but can remain on a purely individual basis. Darius is announced to Ectabane, Alexander goes there at once. Darius is assassinated by the Bessos satrap. It is good for the Macedonian who is presented in the form of a heir to the profaned throne, but his soldiers start to express the desire to turn over to Greece. Alexander convinces his troops to pursue the murderers of Darius bus Bessos was made crown under the name of Artaxerxes. The army moves towards Bactriane when the son of Parmenion, Philotas is implied in a plot against the life of Alexander. It is condemned and lapidated. not to have. Parmenion is put at death because, he has not prevented him from a danger which he risks..
The Greek mercenaries who were useful for the Large King
before - 334
are built-in in the army. Revolts in the peripheral satrapies and the
Bessos' pursuit, obliges Alexander with guerroyer in Bactriane and
to continue it him and its 7 000 Bactres riders accompanied by the
archers with Dahes horse of Iaxartes. Towards the end of - 330,
the high valley of current Kabul is colonized and an Alexandria news is
founded to control the area. In spring - 329, the King of Asia takes by
storm Aornos (Chulm) and Bactres (Balkh), then it crosses the river
(Amou Daria) and enters in Sogdiane. Bessos is betrayed not his
and Alexander is informed by it. He sends
to carry out this delicate capture, then dispatches Bessos with Bactres
to be judged there. Resistance is hard in Bactriane and Sogdiane where
Spitamene, combined of Saces and Massagetes, massacres garrisons
Macedonians and beats severely on the Polytimetos river, a small army
to support Maracanda (Samarkand) besieged. But Spitamene is killed
by Massagetes in - 328. Iran is entirely subjected and Alexander
begins his policy of fusion: he marries Roxane the girl of Oxyartes
and just of Asian in the army. The dissatisfaction with the soldiers
and of the plots are denounced in particular in front of the refusal of
prosterner in front of the Macedonian, in - 327.
Alexander wants to conquer this part of the Achemenides Empire. India is a mosaic of kingdoms. The army of the conquest counts 60 000 soldiers of which the half of Asian. A difficult battle opposes it to the army of Porus and its elephants. The Indian king positioned his army behind the Hydaspe river. Crater fixes the enemy with the major part of the troops of Alexander, while this last crosses the obstacle upstream with a part of the cavalry and hypaspists. An operation of cavalry decides victory. Porus courageously fought and its kingdom is returned to him in spring - 326. Alexander continues his conquest by reducing the various people of Pendjab. The country is hellenise by the creation of two Greek colonies: Nicee and Bucephalie. The river Hyphase (Bias) is reached, but not crossed, the troops refusing to continue.
Nearque has the order to arm a fleet with 100 ships and has 12 000 soldiers and 2 000 sailors. The army descends the Indus river towards the sea that Alexander wants to explore. Crater has the role of bringing back a part of the troops by the master keys of Bolan, Quetta and Candahar and of joining the remainder of the army in Caramany. Alexander reaches Pattala in July - 325. Nearque skirts the coast and the king takes the most painful way: the desert of Gedrosia, not far from the sea, which is crossed while progressing night. In December - 325, Alexander reaches Caramany, its army beat Orites and sudden Gedrosians then of heavy losses due to the lack of water. Crater joined them. The king learns that a mutiny of soldiers mercenaries killed Philippe the new satrap of High Indus. Disorders, burst in various points of the empire. Alexander must prevail. 13 leaders are carried out. Waiting of the fleet which one is without news is feverish. Finally it is seen in Harmozia (Ormuz), intact.
In Suse, in - 324, Alexander decides, to accelerate the fusion of the people Macedonians and Persians, the marriage of 10 000 officers and soldiers, with Persian women. The king marries the girl of Darius. The Persian cavalries and Macedonians are plain. Alexander requires to be honoured like a god. The veterans are returned to Macedonia with a gratification of a talent per soldier, and are led by Cratere and Polyperchon. Antipater will bring back the new recruits. Heraclide is sent into Caspian to see whether this sea communicates with the Ocean. 3 forwardings leave to discover the coasts of Arabia. Projects of conquests of Sicily, of Italy, of Carthage or Spain seem to have matured in the spirit of the king in Babylon. A beginning of concentration of the troops necessary to a new campaign is envisaged but Alexander is anxious in front of disastrous signs according to Plutarque. The disease takes it and he dies after 12 days of fever, at 33 years, June 13 - 323.
During this Persian adventure, Greece offers resistance to
In - 331, under the impulse from Agis III, king of Sparte, the major
of the Greeks took the weapons against the Macedonians. Antipater,
an army quickly and stops in blood this revolt. To the end of the
Agis feeling the lost battle, only launch out in the fray, keep silent
many enemies but succumb under the number.
In Babylon, in front of the skin of
the Generals ambitious Macedonians decide fate of the Empire. A king is
to be indicated. Aridee, the simple brother of spirit of Alexander is
One awaits the nearest birth of the child of Roxane. But the infantry
that a son of Perse becomes king and proclaims Aridee. The cavalry is
to it and the conflict is explosive. Ptolemy and Eumene arrive to a
respecting the interests of the two heirs. Lastly, the satrapies are
Ptolemy obtains Egypt, Greece and
return in Antipater, Thrace with Lysimaque, Asia Minor (Large Phrygia,
Lycie, Pamphylie) in Antigone, Large Media with Peithon and Small Media
with Atropates, Syria with Laomedon, Cilicy with Philotas, the Lydia
Menandros, Phrygia hellespontic with Leonnat, Susiane with Coenos,
with Archon, finally Paphlagonia and Cappadoce with Eumene, which must
conquer the latter. Perdiccas becomes regent and the guard of the
is entrusted to Cratere.
This completed crisis, another alarm occurs. Greek troops established in Bactriane, want to return to the country. The rebels compose a troop of 20 000 infantrymen and 3 000 riders. Peithon in load to reduce them, obtains the victory by treason. Repression is very severe. More serious, the revolt bursts in Greece.
The news of died of Alexander pushes Athens and the Greek cities, to revolt against the supervision Macedonian. Sparte, decreased by the continuations of the war of Acted is not implied. A part of the cities remain faithful to Macedonia, thus the Philistines. However, Athens directs a great league of allies, including cities of the Peloponnese, except Sparte and Corinth occupied by a garrison Macedonian, and those of north and center of Greece, among these allies Etoliens and Thessaliens appear. The war is decided. Leosthenes orders the troops and succeeds in crossing Beotia enemy, to join Etoliens and Thessaliens. Leosthenes gains a victory in Beotia and control Thermopyles. The allies beat then the troops of Antipater which is blocked in Lamia in end - 323. New cities join to revolted: Messene, Argos, a part of Epire... Two armies Macedonians are sent in reinforcement. Leonatos directs the first and makes its junction with Antipater, but it is killed in engagement. Then Leosthenes perishes in a combat with Lamia. In spring - 322, Antipater breaks the head office of Lamia and reached Macedonia. The war is played on the sea.
The superiority of the fleet of Athens
of Antipater ceases with the arrival of a powerful squadron phenician
Cypriot. The admiral Cleitos Macedonian beats the Evetion Athenian
in Hellespont allowing the arrival of the troops of Leonatos. The
decisive victory of Cleitos takes place close to Amorgos ruining
Indeed, the regent wants to adapt Macedonia with the support of Olympias, Alexander' mother. But it is undecided and loses the support of that Ci. Antigone overcomes its fleet close to Cyprus. Depity by the abduction of the Alexander's body following the intrigues of Ptolemy, it decides to eliminate Lagide and dies by attacking Egypt. Antipater becomes regent and of new satraps are named of which Seleucus. Antigone is the new general strategist of Asia. During this time, Etoliens invade Thessalie and Antipater must cause an invasion of Acarnaniens to make them leave. Polyperchon reconquers Thessalie. With the death of Antipater, his/her Cassandre son becomes chiliarque, ordering cavalry and Polyperchon is a regent, in - 317. A decision of this last, relating to the return of the outlaws causes an agitation of the Athenian democrats. Cassandre fights about it against Polyperchon takes possession of Piree with a small army and resists the troops of this last which loses its elephants with the head office of Megalopolis. Cassandre subjects Athens and has important resources then. A garrison is installed in Munychie. The army supports it and it is proclaimed regent with the support of Eurydice, the woman of Aridee, which directs Macedonia in the name of her husband. Polyperchon has for allied Olympias which resides in Epire. It enters to Macedonia with Eacide and walk on Euia where Eurydice and Aridee are captured. The "usurpers" are carried out as well as close relations of Cassandre. This last goes against Olympias which is locked up in Pydna. Cassandre makes the seat of the city, during all of winter. To spring, Olympias goes, she is condemned by the assembly of the Macedonians and is carried out by soldiers. Cassandre behaves like a king. It raises Thebes and assembles a forwarding in Argolide and Messenie reducing the places held by Polyperchon and its son Alexandros. He holds captive in Amphipolis, Roxane and its son Alexandre Aegos.
The situation is stabilized in Greece, Cassandre holds Macedonia and Lysimaque Thrace. The danger comes from Asia, in - 316, Antigone eliminated Eumene, drove out Seleucos and installed his men in the satrapies. It wants to reconstitute the Alexander's empire to his profit and he has the means of them. Ptolemy and Lysimaque, anxious, are combined with Cassandre. Asandros, the satrap of Cary joint to the coalition. An ultimatum is addressed to Antigone claiming Babylonia for Seleucos, Syria for Ptolemy, Phrygie of Hellespont for Lysimaque, Lycie and Cappadoce for Asandros. Antigone rejects it in - 315 and wants to carry the war to Greece. But he is retained in Asia and it is by exploiting divisions of the Greeks that he acts initially.
Thus the proclamation of Tyr, in - 315, is a weapon against Cassandre, showing it of the execution of Olympias, to retain captive Roxane and Alexandre IV and to rebuild Thebes and Cassandria which the Macedonians had destroyed. The assembly emits a decree condemning Cassandre if he does not conform to the injunctions of this proclamation. To weaken his enemy, Antigone proclaims his will to make the cities Greek autonomous. Then wanting to cross Hellespont he tries to dispute the maritime superiority with Cassandre, in the north of the Aegean Sea. The Athenians there may find it beneficial to defend and support the fleet of Cassandre. Failing in his attempt, Antigone succeeds in detaching Lemnos and Delos de Cassandre and a Confederation of Cyclades reappears under the protection of his fleet. Not ceasing badgering Cassandre, Antigone arrives, in - 313, to send its other nephew Polemaios, with more important troops, in Greece even. He unloads close of Athens with for objective, the release of the Greek cities under the authority of Cassandre. Successful objective, the garrison of Thebes is driven out, Eubee released, and towards - 312, Polemaios threatens the Attic. The Athenians try to negotiate with him. But the defeat of Demetrios, the son of Antigone, in Gaza, in - 311 against Ptolemy, is followed peace between Diadoques. Athens remains under the influence of Cassandre which is recognized strategist of Europe, but the freedom of the Greeks is proclaimed and Cassandre preserves in the Peloponnese only Corinth, Sicyone and Megalopolis. The king Alexandre IV prisoner in Amphipolis with his mother, remains in title the sovereign with the name of which the large satraps control.
In - 310 or - 309, Cassandre makes assassinate Roxane and Alexandre IV. From - 306, Diadoques proclaim kings since there are no more alive heirs to Alexandre. Cassandre melts Thessalonique to replace the Pella capital, located far from the sea. In the winter - 308, Demetrios intervenes with a fleet of 250 ships and unloads in Piree with for mission of returning freedom to the Greeks and proclaims independent Athens. It is well accomodated and puts the seat in front of Munychie which capitulates. The sending of a fleet lagide at Aegean sea obliges Demetrios to leave Greece. The meeting takes place with Salamine of Cyprus and Ptolemy is overcome. The coalition is reconstituted against Antigone. Demetrios besieges Rhodos which refused to fight Lagide with Antigone, while Cassandre puts the seat in front of Athens and supports with Lysimaque and Ptolemy, Rhodos by supplying it. In spite of the intervention of Etoliens, Cassandre holds good in Attic supported by Corinth and Salamine. Demetrios returns to Greece, threat to cut Cassandre of Macedonia and beats it in the south of Thermopyles. It annexes Beotie and Phocide and releases Athens in - 304. Then Polyorcete takes all the Peloponnese and prepares to attack Cassandre in Macedonia with the assistance of Pyrrhus, king of Epire. The allies cannot let Antigone dominate Greece, Lysimaque attacks in first and crosses Hellespont. It subjects the coast and takes Sardinian. Antigone recalls in - 302, Demetrios in full conquest of Thessalie. It recognizes Cassandre as king de Macedonia and Greece. This last takes again Thessalie, drives out Pyrrhus d' Epire and attacks the Peloponnese. But Demetrios unloads in Ephese and obliges Lysimaque to withdraw and await the powerful army of Seleucus. It is with the turn of Antigone to move back in Phrygie, until the place of the battle of Ipsos in - 301. It is overcome and gives itself death, it was the last possibility of reconstituting the empire of Alexandre. Lysimaque dominates, in addition to Thrace, Asia Mineure until Taurus, Cassandre keeps Macedonia and recovers Greece. Ptolemy does not obtain anything, whereas one promised Syria to him, which returns in Seleucus.
The Empire is burst and take shape the 3 powers which will dominate the 3rd century: Macedonian, seleucide and lagide. The field of Lysimaque is at the same time in Europe and Asia. The force of Demetrios rests on its fleet, the possession of the islands and the ports of Asia Mineure. The conflicts continue. Following Ipsos, the Greek Athens and cities close their doors with Demetrios. The clouds accumulate between Ptolemy and Seleucus. Indeed Lagide refuses that Syria returns in Seleucus. This last does not insist but is reserved to act. With alliance between Ptolemy and Lysimaque that between Seleucus and Demerios answers. Towards - 297, Cassandre dies after a victory counters Celts in Thrace. Its successor Philippe III disappears quickly. His brothers Antipatros and Alexandros are young and this situation is favourable with the ambitions of Demetrios decided to settle in Greece. It attacks Athens without success. A second attempt on the Attic enables him to encircle Athens. A fleet of help is sent by Lagide, but it stops in Cyprus and takes again the island. Athens undergoes the famine and when the Egyptian fleet is presented at Egine, it cannot force the blockade. Athens goes and Demetrios announces the maintenance of their laws and the installation of two garrisons to them. It is with the turn of Sparte, but Demetrios is called elsewhere. Indeed two kings, Antipatros and Alexandros are in full discord and their Thessalonice mother imposes a division of the kingdom, is for the first and the west for the second. But Antipatros kills his mother and fights her brother who solicits Pyrrhus returned in Epire thanks to Lagide and Demetrios. This last makes kill Alexandros and beats Antipatros which takes refuge at Lysimaque which cannot intervene, occupied by a difficult war against Getes of which he is soon the prisoner. Polyorcete goes up on the throne of Macedonia and decides the conquest of Greece. It succeeds in settling in Thessalie, subjecting Thebes and Beotia, repressing a rising of Athens where it imposes oligarchy. But its Patauchos strategist undergoes a heavy defeat in - 290, vis-a-vis with the alliance of Pyrrhus and of Etoliens. The prospect to see Demetrios taking again the heritage of his/her father in Asia, joins together a coalition gathering: Ptolemy and Seleucus. Released Lysimaque and Pyrrhus are added to it. These two kings invade Macedonia, constant by a fleet lagide and are so well accomodated that Polyorcete must flee. Lysimaque and Pyrrhus divide Macedonia in - 287.
Demetrios besieges Athens still revolted under the command of Olympiodoros, the city is supported by almost all the sovereigns. Polyorcete attacks Lysimaque then. It leaves his son Antigone Gonatas in Greece and reached Milet. Certain cities open their doors to him, it takes of them others of which Sardinian. Agathocles, the son of Lysimaque intervenes with a strong army. Demetrios is withdrawn in Phrygie, its troop suffering from famine. It goes in Cilicie where Seleucus joined it with an army and Polyorcete given up by its soldiers must go in - 285. In Greece, during this time, Pyrrhus resists Antigone Gonatas which succeeds in taking Thessalie, holding in Piree against the Athenians and beating Sparte. He cannot retain his troops and withdraws himself in Epire when Lysimaque enters to Macedonia. This king only remains Master and attaches Thessalie then Peonia (Paionia) to Macedonia in - 285. Antigone is strong in the south of Thermopyles. Lysimaque is a Master of the starting base of Alexandre. Will it try to imitate it?
Seleucus feels the threat and when
Keraunos (the lightning), the disinherited son of king Lagide, handled
by Arsinoe kills Agathocles the elder son of marked Lysimaque
of treason, the situation in the kingdom rocks. Seleucus receives
supports in a number and attacks Asia Mineure with a powerful army,
the cities are given to him. The decisive battle takes place in the
of Couroupedion in - 281. It is the defeat for Lysimaque which finds
death there. Seleucus is the new Master of Asia Mineure and dream
much with the unoccupied throne of Macedonia. Ptolemy Keraunos
kills it, conscious that it will not hold the promise to install it on
the throne of Egypt. It is proclaimed king by the army and the fleet of
Lysimaque in - 280. Its principal enemy, Antiochus 1st, wire of
are occupied by a difficult succession. Pyrrhus, a serious competitor,
prepares his forwarding in Italy, Antigone Gonatas is well installed in
Greece, dominates Beotia, and almost all the Peloponnese except
for Sparte. Keraunos marries Arsinoe and approaches Ptolemy
II Philadelphe, the new Pharaon. It gets rid of wire of Lysimaque by
them at died and it beats Antigone Gonatas.
The Celts, coming from the West along
the Danube, with women and children, make irruption in the Greek world
and attack in Thrace, Peonia, Illyrie and Macedonia. Ptolemy Keraunos
is overcome and killed on the battle field in - 279. His Meleagre
brother is swept, just as Antipater his cousin. The throne is vacant in
Macedonia. The strategist Sosthene Macedonian organizes resistance and
badgers the Celtic bands. He pushes back Brennos out of Macedonia and
this last attacks Greece.
But Brennos is stopped in Thermopyles by the quotas dispatched by the
Greek cities of North and Etoliens. And as in the Greco-Persians Wars,
the position is turned. Brennos and its Celts, are pushed back in front
of Delphes, by an army of Greeks including
Etolians. Antigone is in war against Seleucos. Sosthene dies and
the situation worsens. The two rivals make peace, Seleucos gives
up Macedonia and Antigone can conquer it. It unloads in Thrace and
l5 000 Celts. It incorporates of it a certain number as mercenaries in
his army. Antipater is killed with the combat and Ptolemy
the son of Lysimaque flees in Asia. Many Celts pass to Asia, called by
king de Bithynie. They will found the Galate kingdom.
Antigone is proclaimed king in - 276, it
the dynasty of Antigonides which will last until in - 168 and installs
his court in the old capital of Pella. Pyrrhus returns from Italy and
the union of Greece and of Macedonia, also it invades the latter.
1st, with its Celtic mercenaries, is beaten. Greece raises and drives
the garrisons Macedonians in the cities of the Achaean League. Pyrrhus
is received as a liberator in the Peloponnese. He wants to control
but cannot take the city, following the intervention of an army
Pyrrhus withdraws himself with many losses. He dies as a combatant in
city of Argos in - 272. Antigone 1st remainder alone with the orders of
Greece and Macedonia and place of the garrisons in Corinth, Chalcis and
Egypt dominates Cyprus and the
Cyclades. The need for copper and wood which Cyprus provides, explains
the research of the domination of this ground by Egypt. Arsinoe
become queen of Egypt, pushes the Greek cities and in particular Athens
with the revolt against Antigone. Chremonides proposes a
decree "noting the agreement of Athens and of Sparte, always plain
the enemies of Hellenes" and alliance is decided with cities of
the Peloponnese: the confederation of the Achaens, Eleens, Arcadiens
and Cretois. Died Arsinoe, Lagide is not ready to enter in
war and is satisfied to send a squadron in front of Athens, directed by
Patrocles. Antigone 1st, indeed blocks the city which drove out
the garrisons Macedonians. The Egyptian fleet cannot anything for the
Areos, king de Sparte, intervenes then but it is stopped by the
Macedonians with Corinth. It repeats the following year and it is
beaten with Corinth. King d' Epire, Alexandre, invade Macedonia, but
head office of Athens is not raised and Demetrios, the son
of Antigone 1st succeeds in driving out Epirotes. Athens must
It loses its autonomy, a epistate is delegated by the king to control
the city and its magistrates are replaced and chosen by the sovereign.
The war is permanent and Egypt,
of which the power worries the Macedonian, sudden in the Aegean
two naval defeats: the first with Cos, vis-a-vis with the fleet of
1st, towards - 265 and the second by the admiral Rhodien, Agathostratos
close to Ephese, towards - 250. The power lagide loses the control
of Cyclades, while Aratos inserts Sicyone in the Achaean League, thus
it. The confederation arcadienne is enough powerful to beat Sparte with
Mantinee in - 249. The force of these hostile Greek leagues in
encourages Antigone 1st to oppose them between them. It is combined
Etoliens which have just annexed Phocide and Locride, but it loses
which enters the confederation arcadienne in - 243. Aratos is combined
with Sparte and beats Etoliens in the Peloponnese, but it cannot
Athens and Argos which still depend on Macedonia. Antigone 1st Gonatas
dies in - 239 and Demetrios II succeeds to him and runs up
against Aratos which opposes Etolians and Epire to him that the king
by causing the intervention of the illyrians pirates. This policy will
cause the intervention of the Romans (- 228). In 229, he dies by
back an invasion of the barbarians coming from Balkans. Antigone Doson
replaces it and it must fight the Spartans and Dardanians. Sparte is
by Cleomene which gained over the Achaens several victories. The
of social revolution of this kingdom encourages Aratos to reverse
and to make a pact with Antigone Doson into 224. Two years later,
Cleomene is beaten in Sellasie by a phalange Macedonian of 32 rows of
flees in Egypt, Sparte is occupied. The coalition between the Achaean
and Macedonia puts a term at the "revolutionary" mode of Sparte.
Philippe V succeeds Antigone Doson in - 221, and immediately, Etolians, anxious of alliance between Macedonia and Achaie, attacks it and is overcome. They must sign peace with Naupacte in - 217. Philippe V who tries to dominate the coasts of the Adriatic, opposes to the Romans which intervene again, in Illyrie, towards - 219 and settle. By signing a treaty of alliance with Carthage, Philippe V is in a state of war against the Roman power. The first war Macedonian lasts from - 215 with - 205. Rome is mobilized by the army of Hannibal, encircled in Italy and by the Carthaginian troops sent in support. It is combined, countered Macedonia, with the hostile Greeks of the Etolienne League, and also with the kingdom of Pergame. Philippe V defends himself successfully and imposes peace on Etoliens. Rome, in full Punic War, agrees to leave its conquests with Philippe by the treaty of Phoenice, in - 205.
The ambition of Philippe V towards the Straits and its alliance with Antiochos III, the king of Syria, worries Rhodos and Pergame, both combined of Rome. The second war Macedonian starts. The Roman consul Quinctius Flaminius intervenes in Greece, rejoins the Achaens and constant by Etoliens, tries to convince Thebes to be combined to the Romans but does not succeed. Then, by trick, it takes the city. In - 197, Philippe V east demolishes in Cynoscephales, in Thessalie and loses half of his troops. Its kingdom is tiny room with Macedonia, its fleet with 10 vessels and its army with 500 men. It cannot make the war without the "permission" of the Roman senate.
But Flaminius returns its throne to
and proclaims the freedom of the Greek cities with Corinth, then it
the Roman garrisons. The king yields with the requirements of the
but prepares revenge. Antiochus III, unloads in Greece to help Etolians
but it is overcome by the Roman Acilius Glabrio in Thermopyles, in -
Macedonia remains independent but Rome ensures a protectorate of the
Persee becomes last king of Macedonia into - 179. He reconstitutes his armed forces and he combines with Seleucos IV and Rhodos against Rome. The third Macedonian war begins into - 171. The consul Publius Licinius Crassus enters in Thessaly and he is beaten in a minor engagement. Allied cities of Rome: Chalcis and Athens, are maltreated by the Roman troops. Persee, only constant by Epire and Illyrie resists two years vis-a-vis this undisciplined army, but the senate sends the consul Paul Emile who restores the discipline and gains a complete victory with Pydna, in June - 168. The phalange Macedonian is exterminated. The spoils are colossal. The allies of Macedonia "are punished": Illyrie, Epire and even Pergame. Persee dies in captivity in Italy. Macedonia becomes Roman.
But the Greek cities which applauded the
of Flaminius, realize that them freedom is theoretical. In - 146, whole
Greece except Athens and Sparte joint with the revolt of Macedonia
Rome. The Senate reacts firmly and sends the Roman General Lucius
who takes the town of Corinth, the center of the revolt and shaves it
the level of the ground. All that is transportable is sent in Rome. A
of intellectuals is off-set in Rome where the intellectual conquest of
the City starts. Greece and Macedonia are joined together in only one
under the same Roman governor.
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