the prehistoric times, the man is a hunter and also a murderer of the
other people. This explains oldest fortifications, weapons, and sifted
skeletons of arrowheads. In the upper Paleolithic, towards - 40 000
years, the tool becomes a weapon, and can be before (the fragment of
spear in yew tree of Clacton-on-Sea in England, dated from the lower
Paleolithic as those found now Lehringen and the three javelins or
spears in spruce fir, dated of 360 000 years, discovered in the mine of
lignite of Schoeningen in Low - Saxony). Percussion between two flints
is replaced with the job of flint by means of other percuteurs as wood
of cervidae or of reindeer.The first rupestral engravings representing
fights with propellers, are old 17 000 years.
How fought our ancestors?
At the Paleolithic
era (before - 10 000 years), the used weapons are stones, bludgeons,
assegais in bone, harpoons with barbs which appear to the magdalenian,
available since a very long time. One found in the
Charente (France) the skull of a man of Neandertal, (about - 36 000
years), broke further to the impact of a sharp object. The man survived
his wound looked by his companions. The found stony brightness serve as
arrowheads or are planted at the end of the spear. The bow is
discovered to Epipaleolithic. Then the
dagger and the sling appear.
It is a long range weapon as the killing stick, ancestor of the
old boomerang of at least 23 000 years..
At the Neolithic
era, the man learns to make weapons associating the stone and the wood
as tomahawk. In America, the flint is replaced by the obsidian
or the other hard stones. The bow is quickly known and it lengthens
much the range of the shooting. The warrior carries much more arrows
than spears. The "fire power" is superior.
and two propellers
place in the interval ranging between the habitats then directly on the
territory of the assaulted and the fortifications appear. Strengths
involved in the neolithic in the Middle East are comparable to the
troops fighting on the majority of the battlefields of the Middle Age,
that is 5 to 10 000 men, but they are often used in reduced groups of
warriors' line, shooting on order or walking in column, behind their
leader who is dressed specifically. The tactics is not absent and a
double enveloppement is even observable. One cannot speak of battle but
rather of raid or of devastation of the territory. The combat is
justified by the control of the invaluable resources (foods, water, raw
As at the end the territory
of the loser is taken, the prehistoric fight is wild. A cemetery was
found in Egypt, near Assouan. It dates from the period included between
- 12 000 and - 4 500. Half of the skeletons carry traces of violent
death caused by small sharp stony brightness, sometimes in great number
on the same body. The fracture of certain bones is caused by gestures
to avoid the blows. Comparable cemeteries were found in Russia and in
Rumania, they date from the 5th
The most spectacular
traces of the war in the prehistoric times are the ruins of massive
fortifications built only to protect itself from the other men. In
first natural shelters as the caves are enough for the protection
against animals and enemies. Then bows and slings oblige people to
build artificial obstacles: high walls. To Jericho, neolithic
fortifications, round towers and walls with 3 metres in thickness and
10 metres high, are made by a whole village, in the 9th , 8th
millennium. The men could work the ground behind these
ramparts and amass reserves in this agglomeration of 3 000
persons. There is no distinction between civilians and
military. The captives become slaves and the young women, concubines.
known weapons are wooden spears, already for the hunting, we found to
Schoeningen ( in Germany), spears which we were able to date 360 000
years!. In Paleolithic final already, they were equipped with points of
flint, bone, wood of reindeers (for example in Kesslerloch, Swiss). The
lance arose from the projection of these spears.
Between - 12 000 and
000, we can speak about a technological revolution of the armament.
During this period, four new weapons appear: the bow, the sling, the
dagger and the mass. The bow and the arrows, appeared to the end of
this time, remained during millenniums the main projectiles. In the
mesolithique, arrows are made with flint glares "stucks" by means of a
plant tar. Points of arrows in cristal of rock appearr to the average
neolithic. The sling is superior in precision and in power to the
primitive bow. In Anatolie one found slings and missiles in cooked
clay, more precise than stones.
Africans bowmen (Cattle period 4th
Neolithic era axes are made in stone and the daggers in flint,
exceptionally in copper. These objects were probably in the same
moment, tools, weapons and a mark of prestige.
The abundance of food allows the appearance of the crafts and so the
barter between human groups. In these exchanges, tools and
weapons are going to spread.
The civilization at first
time develop himself in fertile alluvial ponds of the big rivers. So
are born civilizations from :
America, it is necessary to wait about - 40 000 so that the man,
come by the strait of ice-cold Bering, or by the sea route, begins to
populate the continent. The passage remains opened repeatedly according
to the glacial maxima. In Oceania, the first trace of the
man is at - 40 000 in Australia and New Guinea.
At the end of the prehistory, the
is capable of an organized fight.